History of Martial Arts

246 b.c. – The Chinese military of the Zhou dynasty features some kind of wrestling competition called “Jiaoli“.

23 b.c. – The Japanese Nomi-no-Sukune is ordered by the Emperor to fight the best wrestler of his time, Tomaketsu Hayato. He kills his oponent and since is known as originator of Jiu-Jitsu. Also Judo and Sumo take him for their forefather.

530 – The Indian monk Bodhidharma teaches meditation movements to the followers of the Shaolin bonzery. This is said to be the origin of Shaolin Kung Fu.

587 – The Japanese archerYorozu attempts Seppuku (Harakiri) to prove his master that he can be killed but not defeated.

618-907 – During the Chinese Tang dynasty Wushu (Chinese boxing) becomes an elementary part of military training.

1100-1200 – The unarmed martial arts Yawara is first mentioned at the Japanese manuscript “Kojaku Monogatari“.

1528-1587 – Qi Jiguang, a general of the Ming dynasty, describes 16 different boxing styles in his opus “Quanjing“.

1650 – The Chinese Gembin allegedly teaches the art of barehanded self-defense in Japan.

1657 – The German armourer Johan Georg Pascha writes a book on unarmed combat and describes many techniques similar to Wing Chun Kung Fu.

1644-1911 – The Chinese Quing dynasty bans the people from practising Wushu and Tai Chi Chuan. Nevertheless, secret schools and groups hide throughout the country.

1885 – The German physician Prof. Dr. Belz re-discovers lost martial arts knowledge in Japan. Jigoro Kano is one of the forerunners and founder of Judo.

1894-1905 – News from both violent conflicts in China and the Russian-Japanese war bring along information to the West of Asian close combat techniques which are taught as sport.

1901 – Japanese martial arts athletes demonstrate Jiu-Jitsu in London, England, at vaudeville stages and circus arenas.

1903 – US President Theodore Roosevelt is practising Jiu-Jitsu two times at week with Japanese Yamashita Yoshiaki.

1905 – Austrian Hans Köck introduces "Yu-Yitsu" to Vienna. After World War 1st Franz Sager, alias "Willy Curly", establishes the first Austrian "Jiu-Jitsu" dojo.

1906 – Two Japanese cruisers moor at Kiel, Germany. Martial arts are performed at the face of German Emperor Wilhelm II. He orders to engage a Jiu-Jitsu teacher. The Japanese Agitaro Ono comes to Germany.

1905-1907 - Takeda Sokaku, founder of Daito-ryu Aiki Jutsu and teacher of Ueshiba Morehei, refuses to join the soft competition rules of Kodokan-Judo.

1910 – More Japanese come to Germany. Their master student is Erich Rahn. In 1906 he establishes the first German Jiu Jitsu school, instructs the Berlin police and becomes known as the „Master of 1000 techniques“.

1921 - Ueshiba Morihei establishes a small Dojo at Tokyo and teaches Aiki Budo.

1922 – Erich Rahn wins the first „Professional Championship“ in German Jiu Jitsu by leg-scissor-sweep.

1929 – When competing against a British team, German Jiu Jitsu fighters have to acknowledge the new Judo to be better suited for sporting contests.

1932 – Germans found the „German Judo Circle“ with Alfred Rhode as first president.

1933 – Prof. Jigoro Kano visits Europe und instructs Judo at Berlin and Munich.

1937 – The Korean Choi Yong-shul studies Ju-Jutsu in Japan and develops Dae Dong Yu Yusool, which later is called Hapkido.

1947 – Israel immigrant Imi Lichtenfeld from Czechia develops the close combat style Krav Maga.

1953 – The German Judo Federation (DJB) is founded.

1963 – The European Karate Union is founded.

1963 – Gerd Wischnewski studies martial arts in Japan and introduces Aikido and Kendo to Germany.

1968 – Ju-Jutsu is accepted by the German Dan Meeting as “fourth way“ and becomes a part of the Judo Federation (DJB).

1969 – First Aikido Dan exam in Germany elects Rolf Brand and Jürgen Wedding as black belts.

1969 –Ju-Jutsu gets a DJB section of its own, led by Werner Heim (dies 2008). Among the first five Ju-Jutsu black belts there are Erich Reinhardt and the first national instructor Peter Nehls (1969-80).

1976 – The Berlin police under Dieter Rast compiles a semi-contact Ju-Jutsu competition system.

1980 – In the German Federal Republic of Hessen Ju-Jutsu tournaments are full-contact using a safety vest.

1981 – The DJB only allows its Ju-Jutsu athletes to compete in contests of the European Ju Jitsu Federation, featuring the defense of 20 defined attacks without any reaction by the attacker. Manfred Feuchthofen receives a gold medal.

1986 – Now the DJB approves Ju-Jutsu fighting contests for seniors only. The competition features a semi-contact fight using hand and foot safeties.

1991 – The Intern. Ju-Jitsu Federation (IJJF) features softer fighting rules. Direct blows to the head are forebidden. If there is grappling contact between fighters punching and kicking has to cease. Germans Uta Pitz and Frank Witte become European Champions.

1993 – In Copenhagen the Germans Frank Witte and Rolf Hecktor win IJJF-World-Cup-Gold.

1993 – The US Pay-TV introduces Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC). First champions are Royce Gracie, Pedro Rizzo, Ken Shamrock, Mark Coleman, Sato Rumina and Sakuraba Kazushi.

1997 – The German Ju-Jutsu contest rules include ground techniques into the competition system.

1998 – The German Ju-Jutsu competition is adjusted completely to the three-part IJJF system (Standing position –Transit to ground – Ground combat).

2000 – The German Ju Jutsu Association introduces a new structure for belt examinations.